XML Essentials [Episode 3] – XSLT

  • Different than CSS and Its styles for XML
  • Can be convert into anything using this(to PDF, HTML and etc)

how XSLT works

common XSLT tags

Try yourself below:



XML Essentials [Episode 2] – XPath

#define path into XML document

#W3C standard way to access XML data


#”Path Expression” = series of location steps
#”Context Node” = Where path evaluation start from
#”Axis” = Relationship between context and selected nodes
#”Predicates” = Further refinement to selection process

Practice XPath Online:
> http://www.xpathtester.com/xpath
> http://www.freeformatter.com/xpath-tester.html
> http://www.w3schools.com/xpath/xpath_examples.asp

XML Essentials [Episode One]

  • Download the PDF > XML essentials
    • eXtensible Markup Language
    • Tag based syntax, very much like HTML but not a replacement for it
    • Recommendation of W3C 1998
    • Base for several web technologies such as XHTML, AJAX, RSS/ATOM, Web services
    • Used for structure and describe data
    • Enables communicate between different systems and services
    • Hosts different related technologies such as XPath, XSLT, XQuey, XPointer/ XLink


    • Separates presentation layer
    • XML files can be read by many applications such as Java, .Net, PHP, JavaScript and etc.
    • Can be used with Server side and Client side


    • Not suitable for large data files (like 1GB of data)
    • Not suitable for image like data
    • JSON may be better solution for some cases other than XML

    Basics of XML

    • Elements Naming

    Can only start with hyphen (_) or with letter

    Rules of XML Syntax

    • Must have single root tag
    • Must well formed
    • Must have end tags
    • Attributes must inside quotes

    XML Namespaces

    • Prevents from different language tags conflicting with XML tags we defining
    • CDATA Section
      • Will not processed by XML parser
      • Used in cases like when we using some scripting codes inside
    • Processing Instructions
      • Special instructions to XML parser
      • Syntax – <?targetName instructions ?>

    Start Working on XML

    If you started with below and open with browser, It’ll ask for style information as below;

    <?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”utf-8″ ?>


    This is my First XML file

    <!– This is a comment in file –>

    Then what you should do is adding style sheet to itas below

    <?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”utf-8″ standalone=”no”?>

    <!–This must be at the top–>

    <?xml-stylesheet type=”text/css” href=”FirstXmlCss.css”?>

    <!–processin instructions to include stylesheet–>


    This is my First XML file

    <!– This is a comment in file –>


    Style sheet should be as follows

    /*this is CSS file for XML*/

    FirstTag {







    Document Object Model (DOM)

    • Platform, browser and language neutral
    • Represent content as tree structure
    • Uses to disaplay and manipulate XML data




    <title>This is title</title>



    <p>DOM explained</p>



    Properties of DOM

    For represent relationships

    For accessing and creating elements

    For accessing and removing properties