As first post on this series, though of starting from the elementary basics which are what and why. Briefly post will be focusing on below;
What is SharePoint? Why SharePoint? Why need SharePoint rather than moving to developing from the scratch approach?
SharePoint is a platform for developers and professionals where mostly focuses on business content.
SharePoint serve as a platform you to design and develop business solutions.
Currently SharePoint available as both On-promise (Host SharePoint locally) and subscription based service (Office 365)
Main advantage if you moved to develop with SharePoint is its OOTB (Out of The Box) features it contains. As a example, if you develop with other development model you may need to develop and concentrate on authentication, administration, deployment, maintenance and etc. But In the SharePoint it ready made, you need to concentrate on those minimally.