!Redistribution is doing where when we need to pump our routes to different protocol
!RIP redistribution is available for following protocols in Cisco IOS 15
eigrp Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
metric Metric for redistributed routes
ospf Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
rip Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
static Static routes
!RIP to EIGRP
Router(config-router)#redistribute eigrp <AS> metric <default-matric>
!RIP to OSPF
Router(config-router)#redistribute ospf <process-ID> metric <default-metric>
There are mainly three methods available
- Static NAT
- Dynamic NAT
- PAT (Port Address Translation or NAT-Overloaded)
Static NAT – one to one ip mapping
Static NAT uses a one-to-one mapping of local and global addresses. These mappings are configured by the network administrator and remain constant.
Dynamic NAT- many to many ip mapping
Dynamic NAT uses a pool of public addresses and assigns them on a first-come, first-served basis. When an inside device requests access to an outside network, dynamic NAT assigns an available public IPv4 address from the pool.
Port Address Translation (PAT) – many(x) to many(y) ip mapping .. (x>y)
PAT (also called NAT overload) conserves addresses in the inside global address pool by allowing the router to use one inside global address for many inside local addresses. In other words, a single public IPv4 address can be used for hundreds, even thousands of internal private IPv4 addresses.
Many-to-one address mapping between local and global addresses. This method is also known as overloading (NAT overloading).
Examples will be with next update ..!
If you get some error like this while updating Ubuntu (Linux)
The upgrade has aborted. The upgrade needs a total of 56.7 M free space on disk ‘/boot’. Please free at least an additional 3,816 k of disk space on ‘/boot’. Empty your trash and remove temporary packages of former installations using ‘sudo apt-get clean’.
Your file system doesn’t have enough free space to install new packages of newer version to /boot partition
1>Run following command on terminal
dpkg -l ‘linux-*’ | sed ‘/^ii/!d;/'”$(uname -r | sed “s/\(.*\)-\([^0-9]\+\)/\1/”)”‘/d;s/^[^ ]* [^ ]* \([^ ]*\).*/\1/;/[0-9]/!d’
>>results will be like this
2> Then run this command
>>result will be
Linux user 3.11.0-26-generic #45-Ubuntu SMP Tue Jul 15 04:04:15 UTC 2014 i686 i686 i686 GNU/Linux
3> In the second step you will get kernel version currently running (3.11.0-26-generic ). Then what you should do is purge unwanted/old kernel image as follows
sudo apt-get purge linux-image-3.5.0-48-generic